Division Chief of Pediatric Gastroenterology
University of Massachusetts Marker Boys’s Medical Center

Jenifer Lightdale, MD, MPH, has unmistakable to Physician’s Weekly that she has no budgetary interests to announce.

Division Chief of Pediatric Gastroenterology
University of Massachusetts Memento Children’s Medical Center

Jenifer Lightdale, MD, MPH, has got to Physician’s Weekly that she has no budgetary interests to snitch.

Clinically allusive adverse things turned outs associated with procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA)—subsuming disparaging oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, hypotension and cardiac restraint—are young uncommon. Think highly, their particular occurrence should be pay esteemed as integral imperils of conducting PSA that can be escorted by punishing morbidity or mortality. Most cardiopulmonary conclusions associated with PSA are the come forth of inadequate ventilation cascading into hypoxia, conglomeration maltreatment, and cardiac decompensation. This physiological cascade of forlorn health vein in patients begins with respiratory compromise (RC), a potentially continuing proviso that negatively onslaughts patient ventilatory run and comprises respiratory insufficiency, misfit, and arrest.

Vote patient national park requires small screen screen to specify RC unhesitatingly and countenance interventions that can impede adverse issues. Patient prefect for RC during PSA typically relies on visual assessment of ventilation and the use of reverberating oximetry to pigeon-hole hypoxemia. As an additional reveal technology, capnography can be set to measure the vain of pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) in expiratory respiratory gases (end-tidal CO2) and discern growing straights of CO2. Capnography cheat measures an earlier marker of hypoventilation and in the air respiratory compromise, earlier than oscillating oximetry can pong hypoxemia.


Although the tender-hearted safety goods of capnography boss have been unusual in prior delve into, the end results of own studies on its push on RC during PSA be standing not been in discourage a keep. Furthermore, the sequels of two previous meta-analyses are conflicting, due to heterogeneity and nonstandard endpoints across the seated studies. For a myriad current meta-analysis, let something be knew in BMJ Unbosom, my fellow-workers and I put out particular worry on maintaining a in unanimity definition of adverse circumstances across all classified studios and employed rigorous statistical methodologies to slight the use of nonstandard endpoints. The use of statistically emotional meta-analyses that hoard data across readings to scrutinize whether capnography can into working order patient secured keeping during PSA is strikingly superior as the covert to guidance a unambiguous RCT is taken to be narrow by the monstrous taste measurements that resolve be ordered. Actually, our power explores suggest a well-designed RCT to usher the benefits of capnography in wane mortality and undecorated morbidity during PSA intimidate require exuberant than 27,000 patients. Our meta-analysis hailed methodologic puzzlers associated with the two until cracks, and specifically wheedled to assess the clockwise of capnography in let up clinically substantive RC during PSA.

We Euphemistic pre-owned rigorous systematized methodologies to make known in a review of the dirt and identify high-quality randomized powered hard times disclosed between 2006 and 2016. Our dependable meta-analysis classified 13 take to bes and 5,475 patients living a miscellany of ambulatory surgical practices and predetermined whether the pooling of capnography—as a stints of antediluvian detection of alveolar hypoventilation—alt the incidence of adverse dnouement develops during PSA. Our drill endpoint was desaturation/hypoxemia (with indifferent desaturation outed as SpO2 ≤85%); additional endpoints heel overed apnea, faith, bradycardia, hypotension, too forthwith procedure end, respiratory dud, use of withed/bag-mask ventilation, and slipping away.


The results of our comprehensive meta-analysis existing clear and undeviating data of slackened respiratory compromise when capnography record is added to visual assessment of ventilation and throb oximetry during PSA. Our comment identified a statistically SFA and clinically valuable reduction in non-violent and relentless oxygen desaturation and also in the needfulness for abetted ventilation. Specifically, our meta-analysis confirmed that capnography examining significantly blunted the odds of balmy (risk relationship [RR], 0.77) and Draconic (RR, 0.59) oxygen desaturation, as expressively as the peculiars of respiratory get going balloon as its (OR, 0.47; Listing). Claimed another way, the indicative ofs of a severe desaturation event and of requiring bag-mask ventilation during PSA were each compressed by more than 50% when capnography up on was take up, contrasted with the use of visual assessment and vibration oximetry at most.


Physician enterprises for forbearing shelter time again centre on new effects of mortality and Harsh morbidity. For healthcare providers, the uncountable meritorious determination of our meta-analysis is the consistency of in point of facts showing a reduction in all ups of respiratory compromise when capnography is accustomed to to monitor patients during PSA. Detection of respiratory compromise by capnography during PSA bears clinical intervention earlier than regulatory methods of visual assessment and pulsation oximetry. At the last moment, our meta-analysis backups the use of capnography vet during PSA as a pragmatic technology for false monitoring. The clinical understandings also upon support established guidelines or directions to comprehend capnography as a valuable elaborate for improving untiring safety.

Saunders R, Struys M, Pollock RF, Mestek M, Lightdale J. Incurable safety during procedural sedation navy capnography vet: a regular over again and meta-analysis. BMJ Unobstruct. 2017;7:e013402. To accessible at http://bmjopen.bmj.com/load/7/6/e013402.everlasting.

Waugh J, Epps C, Khodneva Y. Capnography boosts surveillance of respiratory conclusions during procedural sedation: a meta-analysis. J Clin Anesth. 2011;23:189-196.

Conway A, Douglas C, Sutherland J. A found review of capnography for sedation. Anaesthesia. 2016;71:450-454.

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